Respecting Employee Privacy and Professional Productivity:

a Grounded Theory Study in Iran


  • Borhan Aeini University of Tehran
  • Masoomeh Moosavand M.A. in Entrepreneurial Management from the University of Tehran, Researcher at the University of Tehran Tehran, Iran
  • Ako Heidari Ph.D. Student at George Mason University, Department of Geography and Geoinformation Science, Virginia, USA
  • Sina Sabbar B.A. in Information Technology from Payame Noor University



In today’s business environment, the intersections of organizational pragmatism and ethical imperatives have become increasingly prominent. This grounded theory study, explores these intersections to understand the dimensions influencing modern-day Iranian start-ups. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 24 key personnel across diverse roles, the study reveals several core themes: pragmatic orientation, ethical orientation, cultural orientation, and the intricacies of intersectionality and complexity. Key findings emphasize the importance of agility, risk mitigation, and employee well-being in pragmatic decision-making. Concurrently, the ethical spectrum within organizations extends from deontological imperatives to relational ethics. Cultural nuances, shaped by national identity, global influences, and evolving norms, further influence organizational trajectories. The research reveals the nuanced interplay of these orientations and calls for a balanced approach that harmoniously integrates practicality with ethical and cultural considerations in the Iranian start-up ecosystem. Therefore, we say, in order to better use measures of productivity in the Iranian start-ups, we need to meticulously take into account the Iranian-specific criterial of privacy preservation.


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